iperf (tool to measure the bandwidth and the quality of a network link)

Iperf is a tool to measure the bandwidth and the quality of a network link.

The network link is delimited by two hosts running Iperf.

The quality of a link can be tested as follows:
– Latency (response time or RTT): can be measured with the Ping command.
– Jitter (latency variation): can be measured with an Iperf UDP test.
– Datagram loss: can be measured with an Iperf UDP test.

The bandwidth is measured through TCP tests.

To be clear, the difference between TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is that TCP use processes to check that the packets are correctly sent to the receiver whereas with UDP the packets are sent without any checks but with the advantage of being quicker than TCP.
Iperf uses the different capacities of TCP and UDP to provide statistics about network links.

Finally, Iperf can be installed very easily on any UNIX/Linux or Microsoft Windows system. One host must be set as client, the other one as server.

Here is a diagram where Iperf is installed on a Linux and Microsoft Windows machine.
Linux is used as the Iperf client and Windows as the Iperf server. Of course, it is also possible to use two Linux boxes.

screenshot Iperf bandwidth measure client server

 

no arg.
-b
-r
-d
-w
Default settings
Data format
Bi-directional bandwidth
Simultaneous bi-directional bandwidth
TCP Window size
-p, -t, -i
-u, -b
-m
-M
-P
-h
Port, timing and interval
UDP tests, bandwidth settings
Maximum Segment Size display
Maximum Segment Size settings
Parallel tests
help

By default, the Iperf client connects to the Iperf server on the TCP port 5001 and the bandwidth displayed by Iperf is the bandwidth from the client to the server.
If you want to use UDP tests, use the -u argument.
The -d and -r Iperf client arguments measure the bi-directional bandwidths. (See further on this tutorial)

 Client side:

#iperf -c 10.1.1.1

————————————————————
Client connecting to 10.1.1.1, TCP port 5001
TCP window size: 16384 Byte (default)
————————————————————
[ 3] local 10.6.2.5 port 33453 connected with 10.1.1.1 port 5001
[ 3]   0.0-10.2 sec   1.26 MBytes   1.05 Mbits/sec 

 Server side:

#iperf -s

————————————————————
Server listening on TCP port 5001
TCP window size: 8.00 KByte (default)
————————————————————
[852] local 10.1.1.1 port 5001 connected with 10.6.2.5 port 33453
[ ID]   Interval          Transfer       Bandwidth
[852]   0.0-10.6 sec   1.26 MBytes   1.03 Mbits/sec 

 


 Data formatting: (-f argument)

The -f argument can display the results in the desired format: bits(b), bytes(B), kilobits(k), kilobytes(K), megabits(m), megabytes(M), gigabits(g) or gigabytes(G).
Generally the bandwidth measures are displayed in bits (or Kilobits, etc …) and an amount of data is displayed in bytes (or Kilobytes, etc …).
As a reminder, 1 byte is equal to 8 bits and, in the computer science world, 1 kilo is equal to 1024 (2^10).
For example: 100’000’000 bytes is not equal to 100 Mbytes but to 100’000’000/1024/1024 = 95.37 Mbytes.

 Client side:

#iperf -c 10.1.1.1 -f b

————————————————————
Client connecting to 10.1.1.1, TCP port 5001
TCP window size: 16384 Byte (default)
————————————————————
[ 3] local 10.6.2.5 port 54953 connected with 10.1.1.1 port 5001
[ 3]   0.0-10.2 sec   1359872 Bytes   1064272 bits/sec 

 Server side:

#iperf -s

————————————————————
Server listening on TCP port 5001
TCP window size: 8.00 KByte (default)
————————————————————
[852] local 10.1.1.1 port 5001 connected with 10.6.2.5 port 33453
[ ID]   Interval          Transfer       Bandwidth
[852]   0.0-10.6 sec   920 KBytes   711 Kbits/sec 


 Bi-directional bandwidth measurement: (-r argument)

The Iperf server connects back to the client allowing the bi-directional bandwidth measurement. By default, only the bandwidth from the client to the server is measured.
If you want to measure the bi-directional bandwidth simultaneously, use the -d keyword. (See next test.)

 Client side:

#iperf -c 10.1.1.1 -r

————————————————————
Server listening on TCP port 5001
TCP window size: 85.3 KByte (default)
————————————————————
————————————————————
Client connecting to 10.1.1.1, TCP port 5001
TCP window size: 16.0 KByte (default)
————————————————————
[ 5] local 10.6.2.5 port 35726 connected with 10.1.1.1 port 5001
[ 5]   0.0-10.0 sec   1.12 MBytes   936 Kbits/sec
[ 4] local 10.6.2.5 port 5001 connected with 10.1.1.1 port 1640
[ 4]   0.0-10.1 sec   74.2 MBytes   61.7 Mbits/sec 

 Server side:

#iperf -s

————————————————————
Server listening on TCP port 5001
TCP window size: 8.00 KByte (default)
————————————————————
[852] local 10.1.1.1 port 5001 connected with 10.6.2.5 port 54355
[ ID]   Interval          Transfer        Bandwidth
[852]   0.0-10.1 sec   1.15 MBytes   956 Kbits/sec
————————————————————
Client connecting to 10.6.2.5, TCP port 5001
TCP window size: 8.00 KByte (default)
————————————————————
[824] local 10.1.1.1 port 1646 connected with 10.6.2.5 port 5001
[ ID]   Interval          Transfer        Bandwidth
[824]   0.0-10.0 sec   73.3 MBytes   61.4 Mbits/sec 


 Simultaneous bi-directional bandwidth measurement: (-d argument)
Also check the “Jperf” section.

To measure the bi-directional bandwidths simultaneousely, use the -d argument. If you want to test the bandwidths sequentially, use the -r argument (see previous test).
By default (ie: without the -r or -d arguments), only the bandwidth from the client to the server is measured.

 Client side:

#iperf -c 10.1.1.1 -d

————————————————————
Server listening on TCP port 5001
TCP window size: 85.3 KByte (default)
————————————————————
————————————————————
Client connecting to 10.1.1.1, TCP port 5001
TCP window size: 16.0 KByte (default)
————————————————————
[ 5] local 10.6.2.5 port 60270 connected with 10.1.1.1 port 5001
[ 4] local 10.6.2.5 port 5001 connected with 10.1.1.1 port 2643
[ 4] 0.0-10.0 sec 76.3 MBytes 63.9 Mbits/sec
[ 5] 0.0-10.1 sec 1.55 MBytes 1.29 Mbits/sec 

 Server side:

#iperf -s

————————————————————
Server listening on TCP port 5001
TCP window size: 8.00 KByte (default)
————————————————————
[852] local 10.1.1.1 port 5001 connected with 10.6.2.5 port 60270
————————————————————
Client connecting to 10.6.2.5, TCP port 5001
TCP window size: 8.00 KByte (default)
————————————————————
[800] local 10.1.1.1 port 2643 connected with 10.6.2.5 port 5001
[ ID]   Interval          Transfer       Bandwidth
[800]   0.0-10.0 sec   76.3 MBytes   63.9 Mbits/sec
[852]   0.0-10.1 sec   1.55 MBytes   1.29 Mbits/sec


 TCP Window size: (-w argument)

The TCP window size is the amount of data that can be buffered during a connection without a validation from the receiver.
It can be between 2 and 65,535 bytes.
On Linux systems, when specifying a TCP buffer size with the -w argument, the kernel allocates double as much as indicated.

 Client side:

#iperf -c 10.1.1.1 -w 2000

WARNING: TCP window size set to 2000 bytes. A small window size
will give poor performance. See the Iperf documentation.
————————————————————
Client connecting to 10.1.1.1, TCP port 5001
TCP window size: 3.91 KByte (WARNING: requested 1.95 KByte)
————————————————————
[ 3] local 10.6.2.5 port 51400 connected with 10.1.1.1 port 5001
[ 3]   0.0-10.1 sec   704 KBytes   572 Kbits/sec

 Server side:

#iperf -s -w 4000

————————————————————
Server listening on TCP port 5001
TCP window size: 3.91 KByte
————————————————————
[852] local 10.1.1.1 port 5001 connected with 10.6.2.5 port 51400
[ ID]   Interval          Transfer       Bandwidth
[852]   0.0-10.1 sec   704 KBytes   570 Kbits/sec

 

 


 Communication port (-p), timing (-t) and interval (-i):

The Iperf server communication port can be changed with the -p argument. It must be configured on the client and the server with the same value, default is TCP port 5001.
The -t argument specifies the test duration time in seconds, default is 10 secs.
The -i argument indicates the interval in seconds between periodic bandwidth reports.

 Client side:

#iperf -c 10.1.1.1 -p 12000 -t 20 -i 2

————————————————————
Client connecting to 10.1.1.1, TCP port 12000
TCP window size: 16.0 KByte (default)
————————————————————
[ 3] local 10.6.2.5 port 58316 connected with 10.1.1.1 port 12000
[ 3]    0.0- 2.0 sec    224 KBytes    918 Kbits/sec
[ 3]    2.0- 4.0 sec    368 KBytes    1.51 Mbits/sec
[ 3]    4.0- 6.0 sec    704 KBytes    2.88 Mbits/sec
[ 3]    6.0- 8.0 sec    280 KBytes    1.15 Mbits/sec
[ 3]    8.0-10.0 sec    208 KBytes    852 Kbits/sec
[ 3]   10.0-12.0 sec   344 KBytes    1.41 Mbits/sec
[ 3]   12.0-14.0 sec   208 KBytes    852 Kbits/sec
[ 3]   14.0-16.0 sec   232 KBytes    950 Kbits/sec
[ 3]   16.0-18.0 sec   232 KBytes    950 Kbits/sec
[ 3]   18.0-20.0 sec   264 KBytes    1.08 Mbits/sec
[ 3]    0.0-20.1 sec   3.00 MBytes   1.25 Mbits/sec 

 Server side:

#iperf -s -p 12000

————————————————————
Server listening on TCP port 12000
TCP window size: 8.00 KByte (default)
————————————————————
[852] local 10.1.1.1 port 12000 connected with 10.6.2.5 port 58316
[ ID] Interval Transfer Bandwidth
[852]   0.0-20.1 sec   3.00 MBytes   1.25 Mbits/sec


 UDP tests: (-u), bandwidth settings (-b)
Also check the “Jperf” section.

The UDP tests with the -u argument will give invaluable information about the jitter and the packet loss. If you don’t specify the -u argument, Iperf uses TCP.
To keep a good link quality, the packet loss should not go over 1 %. A high packet loss rate will generate a lot of TCP segment retransmissions which will affect the bandwidth.

The jitter is basically the latency variation and does not depend on the latency. You can have high response times and a very low jitter. The jitter value is particularly important on network links supporting voice over IP (VoIP) because a high jitter can break a call.
The -b argument allows the allocation if the desired bandwidth.

 Client side:

#iperf -c 10.1.1.1 -u -b 10m

————————————————————
Client connecting to 10.1.1.1, UDP port 5001
Sending 1470 byte datagrams
UDP buffer size: 108 KByte (default)
————————————————————
[ 3] local 10.6.2.5 port 32781 connected with 10.1.1.1 port 5001
[ 3]   0.0-10.0 sec   11.8 MBytes   9.89 Mbits/sec
[ 3] Sent 8409 datagrams
[ 3] Server Report:
[ 3]   0.0-10.0 sec   11.8 MBytes   9.86 Mbits/sec   2.617 ms   9/ 8409   (0.11%) 

 Server side:

#iperf -s -u -i 1

————————————————————
Server listening on UDP port 5001
Receiving 1470 byte datagrams
UDP buffer size: 8.00 KByte (default)
————————————————————
[904] local 10.1.1.1 port 5001 connected with 10.6.2.5 port 32781
[ ID]   Interval         Transfer        Bandwidth         Jitter        Lost/Total Datagrams
[904]   0.0- 1.0 sec   1.17 MBytes   9.84 Mbits/sec   1.830 ms   0/ 837   (0%)
[904]   1.0- 2.0 sec   1.18 MBytes   9.94 Mbits/sec   1.846 ms   5/ 850   (0.59%)
[904]   2.0- 3.0 sec   1.19 MBytes   9.98 Mbits/sec   1.802 ms   2/ 851   (0.24%)
[904]   3.0- 4.0 sec   1.19 MBytes   10.0 Mbits/sec   1.830 ms   0/ 850   (0%)
[904]   4.0- 5.0 sec   1.19 MBytes   9.98 Mbits/sec   1.846 ms   1/ 850   (0.12%)
[904]   5.0- 6.0 sec   1.19 MBytes   10.0 Mbits/sec   1.806 ms   0/ 851   (0%)
[904]   6.0- 7.0 sec   1.06 MBytes   8.87 Mbits/sec   1.803 ms   1/ 755   (0.13%)
[904]   7.0- 8.0 sec   1.19 MBytes   10.0 Mbits/sec   1.831 ms   0/ 850   (0%)
[904]   8.0- 9.0 sec   1.19 MBytes   10.0 Mbits/sec   1.841 ms   0/ 850   (0%)
[904]   9.0-10.0 sec   1.19 MBytes   10.0 Mbits/sec   1.801 ms   0/ 851   (0%)
[904]   0.0-10.0 sec   11.8 MBytes   9.86 Mbits/sec   2.618 ms   9/ 8409  (0.11%) 


 Maximum Segment Size (-m argument) display:

The Maximum Segment Size (MSS) is the largest amount of data, in bytes, that a computer can support in a single, unfragmented TCP segment.
It can be calculated as follows:
MSS = MTU – TCP & IP headers
The TCP & IP headers are equal to 40 bytes.
The MTU or Maximum Transmission Unit is the greatest amount of data that can be transferred in a frame.
Here are some default MTU size for different network topology:
Ethernet – 1500 bytes: used in a LAN.
PPPoE – 1492 bytes: used on ADSL links.
Token Ring (16Mb/sec) – 17914 bytes: old technology developed by IBM.
Dial-up – 576 bytes

Generally, a higher MTU (and MSS) brings higher bandwidth efficiency

 Client side:

#iperf -c 10.1.1.1 -m

————————————————————
Client connecting to 10.1.1.1, TCP port 5001
TCP window size: 16.0 KByte (default)
————————————————————
[ 3] local 10.6.2.5 port 41532 connected with 10.1.1.1 port 5001
[ 3]   0.0-10.2 sec   1.27 MBytes   1.04 Mbits/sec
[ 3] MSS size 1448 bytes (MTU 1500 bytes, ethernet)

Here the MSS is not equal to 1500 – 40 but to 1500 – 40 – 12 (Timestamps option) = 1448

 Server side:

#iperf -s

 


 Maximum Segment Size (-M argument) settings:

Use the -M argument to change the MSS. (See the previous test for more explanations about the MSS)

#iperf -c 10.1.1.1 -M 1300 -m

WARNING: attempt to set TCP maximum segment size to 1300, but got 536
————————————————————
Client connecting to 10.1.1.1, TCP port 5001
TCP window size: 16.0 KByte (default)
————————————————————
[ 3] local 10.6.2.5 port 41533 connected with 10.1.1.1 port 5001
[ 3]   0.0-10.1 sec   4.29 MBytes   3.58 Mbits/sec
[ 3] MSS size 1288 bytes (MTU 1328 bytes, unknown interface) 

 Server side:

#iperf -s

 


 Parallel tests (-P argument):

Use the -P argument to run parallel tests.

 Client side:

#iperf -c 10.1.1.1 -P 2

————————————————————
Client connecting to 10.1.1.1, TCP port 5001
TCP window size: 16.0 KByte (default)
————————————————————
[ 3] local 10.6.2.5 port 41534 connected with 10.1.1.1 port 5001
[ 4] local 10.6.2.5 port 41535 connected with 10.1.1.1 port 5001
[ 4]     0.0-10.1 sec   1.35 MBytes   1.12 Mbits/sec
[ 3]     0.0-10.1 sec   1.35 MBytes   1.12 Mbits/sec
[SUM]  0.0-10.1 sec   2.70 MBytes   2.24 Mbits/sec 

 Server side:

#iperf -s

————————————————————————————————-

Iperf on Windows

Iperf is a neat little tool with the simple goal of helping administrators measure the performance of their network. Worthy of mention is the fact that it can measure both TCP and UDP performance on a network. Iperf is cross platform software and open source.

You can download Iperf.exe from:

Iperf.exe Ucf.edu

Link updated on 12/30/2010

We will be making use of the command line, do not fear the command line Iperf is a simple tool to use.

Say I want to test the available bandwidth between a server(Windows Server 2008) and a client workstation(Windows 7). Iperf will try to move as much data as possible using the available link in order to conduct the test.

iperf-server-client-windows

Instructions

Download the Iperf executable and place the file on any directory you wish, my web browser(Firefox) places all downloaded files on the Download directory which is where I will be executing Iperf from.

Note:You will need to open port 5001 on the Iperf server.

Server Setup

Go to Start All Programs > Accessories > Command Prompt

command-prompt

With the command line prompt open type

cd Dowloads

or the location where the Iperf executable resides.

cd-download

Now that you are in the same directory as Iperf type

iperf -s

to start the Iperf server. If you look at the screen Iperf listens on port 5001 you may have to open port 5001 on your firewall.

iperf-server

Client Set Up

Imitating the steps above execute Iperf in the same manner, but this time we are going to give the Iperf client different instructions. On the Iperf client command line type

iperf -c 192.168.1.51

. This will be our client and we are telling Iperf the server is located at 192.168.1.51.

iperf-c

Give Iperf some time to test the connection, after the test is done Iperf will present the results.

iperf-test-done

The results are easy to understand in this case Iperf managed to transfer 113 Mbytes at 94.5 Mbit/s, the results will changed when used on a busy network which is where Iperf will reveal the amount of available bandwidth in the network.

 

Advertisements

Posted on July 8, 2014, in Linux (Ubuntu/CentOS), Smoothwall. Bookmark the permalink. Leave a comment.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: